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Tucarimahana and Seconding Kawiterutsiri - Fotografía ©Juan Negrín 1980 - 2010
and Seconding Kawiterutsiri - Fotografía ©Juan Negrín, July 1980 - 2017

Some of the community’s shamanic chanting elders, who have successfully accomplished political and religious services, become elected for life as kawiterutsiri (like this tukarimahana, or rain chanter, and his seconder, at left), they are in charge of difficult tasks aimed at keeping the community in balance with traditional precepts. They chant for days and nights about an esoteric history of sacred places and events, calling on Our Mothers of Rain and Our Elder Brother Deer Tail.

Early History

Linguistic and archeological roots. First Spanish contacts and eventual political domination.

-Early History (pdf 220K)
-Post Hispanic History
(pdf 307K)

Recent History

Rebellions, loss of land, deforestation, education, acculturation and integration.

-Recent History (pdf 316K)


Commentary on the natural resources and topography of the Sierras.